Programming language: Go
License: GNU General Public License v3.0 or later
Tags: Testing     Testing Frameworks    
Latest version: v1.0.1

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go-vcr simplifies testing by recording your HTTP interactions and replaying them in future runs in order to provide fast, deterministic and accurate testing of your code.

go-vcr was inspired by the VCR library for Ruby.


Install go-vcr by executing the command below:

$ go get github.com/dnaeon/go-vcr/v2/recorder


Here is a simple example of recording and replaying etcd HTTP interactions.

You can find other examples in the example directory of this repository as well.

package main

import (



func main() {
    // Start our recorder
    r, err := recorder.New("fixtures/etcd")
    if err != nil {
    defer r.Stop() // Make sure recorder is stopped once done with it

    // Create an etcd configuration using our transport
    cfg := client.Config{
        Endpoints:               []string{""},
        HeaderTimeoutPerRequest: time.Second,
        Transport:               r, // Inject as transport!

    // Create an etcd client using the above configuration
    c, err := client.New(cfg)
    if err != nil {
        log.Fatalf("Failed to create etcd client: %s", err)

    // Get an example key from etcd
    etcdKey := "/foo"
    kapi := client.NewKeysAPI(c)
    resp, err := kapi.Get(context.Background(), etcdKey, nil)

    if err != nil {
        log.Fatalf("Failed to get etcd key %s: %s", etcdKey, err)

    log.Printf("Successfully retrieved etcd key %s: %s", etcdKey, resp.Node.Value)

Custom Request Matching

During replay mode, You can customize the way incoming requests are matched against the recorded request/response pairs by defining a Matcher function. For example, the following matcher will match on method, URL and body:

r, err := recorder.New("fixtures/matchers")
if err != nil {
defer r.Stop() // Make sure recorder is stopped once done with it

r.SetMatcher(func(r *http.Request, i cassette.Request) bool {
    if r.Body == nil {
        return cassette.DefaultMatcher(r, i)
    var b bytes.Buffer
    if _, err := b.ReadFrom(r.Body); err != nil {
        return false
    r.Body = ioutil.NopCloser(&b)
    return cassette.DefaultMatcher(r, i) && (b.String() == "" || b.String() == i.Body)

Protecting Sensitive Data

You often provide sensitive data, such as API credentials, when making requests against a service. By default, this data will be stored in the recorded data but you probably don't want this. Removing or replacing data before it is stored can be done by adding one or more Filters to your Recorder. Here is an example that removes the Authorization header from all requests:

r, err := recorder.New("fixtures/filters")
if err != nil {
defer r.Stop() // Make sure recorder is stopped once done with it

// Add a filter which removes Authorization headers from all requests:
r.AddFilter(func(i *cassette.Interaction) error {
    delete(i.Request.Headers, "Authorization")
    return nil

Sensitive data in responses

Filters added using *Recorder.AddFilter are applied within VCR's custom http.Transport. This means that if you edit a response in such a filter then subsequent test code will see the edited response. This may not be desirable in all cases. For instance, if a response body contains an OAuth access token that is needed for subsequent requests, then redact the access token in SaveFilter will result in authorization failures.

Another way to edit recorded interactions is to use *Recorder.AddSaveFilter. Filters added with this method are applied just before interactions are saved when *Recorder.Stop is called.

r, err := recorder.New("fixtures/filters")
if err != nil {
defer r.Stop() // Make sure recorder is stopped once done with it

// Your test code will continue to see the real access token and
// it is redacted before the recorded interactions are saved     
r.AddSaveFilter(func(i *cassette.Interaction) error {
    if strings.Contains(i.URL, "/oauth/token") {
        i.Response.Body = `{"access_token": "[REDACTED]"}`

    return nil

Passing Through Requests

Sometimes you want to allow specific requests to pass through to the remote server without recording anything.

Globally, you can use ModeDisabled for this, but if you want to disable the recorder for individual requests, you can add Passthrough functions to the recorder. The function takes a pointer to the original request, and returns a boolean, indicating if the request should pass through to the remote server.

Here's an example to pass through requests to a specific endpoint:

// Pass through the request to the remote server if the path matches "/login".
r.AddPassthrough(func(req *http.Request) bool {
    return req.URL.Path == "/login"


go-vcr is Open Source and licensed under the BSD License

*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the go-vcr README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.