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Description

Features

* Configurable with optioned plug-able components

* Comes with built-in execution timeout feature which cancels the execution by optioned timeout duration

* Comes with built-in bucketed counter feature which counts the stats by given durationed buckets

* Allows subscribing state change, failure and success events

* Allows overriding the current state with callbacks

* Allows overriding reset timer which can be implemented using an exponential backoff algorithm or any other algorithm when needed

* Allows overriding counter which can allow using an external counter for managing the stats

* Allows adding optional restrictors by execution like max concurrent runs

Programming language: Go
License: Apache License 2.0
Latest version: v1.0.0-alpha

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README

🎚Shift

GoDoc Build Status Coverage Status Go Report Card GitHub license

Shift package is an optioned circuit breaker implementation.

For those who are new to the concept, a brief summary:

  • circuit breaker has 3 states: close, half-open and open
  • when it is in open state, something bad is going on the executions and to prevent bad invokations, the circuit breaker gave a break to new invokations, and returns error
  • when it is in half-open state, then there could be a chance for recovery from bad state and circuit breaker evaluates criterias to trip to next states
  • when it is in close state, then everything is working as expected

State changes in circuit breaker:

  • close -> open: close can trip to open state
  • close <- half-open -> open: half-open can trip to both close and open states
  • open -> half-open: open can trip to half-open

If you are interested in learning what is circuit breaker or sample use cases for circuit breakers then you can refer to References section of this README.md file.

API

Although no significant change should be expected on design and features, the method names and arities/args may subject to change until version 1.0.0. Shift package follows semantic versioning 2.x rules on releases and tags. To access to the current package version, shift.Version constant can be used.

Features

  • Configurable with optioned plugable components
  • Comes with built-in execution timeout feature which cancels the execution by optioned timeout duration
  • Comes with built-in bucketted counter feature which counts the stats by given durationed buckets
  • Allows subscribing state change, failure and success events
  • Allows overriding the current state with callbacks
  • Allows overriding reset timer which can be implemented using an exponential backoff algorithm or any other algorithm when needed
  • Allows overriding counter which can allow using an external counter for managing the stats
  • Allows adding optional restrictors by execution like max concurrent runs

Installation

Via go packages:

go get github.com/mustafafuran/shift

Usage

Basic with defaults

On configurations 3 options are critical to have a healthy circuit breaker, so on any configuration it is highly recommended to specify at least the following 3 options with desired numbers.

// Trip from Close to Open state under 95.0% success ratio at minimum of
// 20 invokations on configured duration(see WithCounter for durationed stats)
shift.WithOpener(StateClose, 95.0, 20),

// Trip from Half-Open to Open state under 75.0% success ratio at minimum of
// 10 invokations on configured duration(see WithCounter for durationed stats)
shift.WithOpener(StateHalfOpen, 75.0, 10),

// Trip from Half-Open to Close state on 90.0% of success ratio at minumum of
// 10 invokations on configured duration(see WithCounter for durationed stats)
shift.WithCloser(90.0, 10),

It is also recommended to have multiple circuit breakers for each invoker with their own specific configurations depending on the SLA requirements. For example: A circuit breaker for Github, another for Twitter, and yet another for Facebook API client.

Execute with a function implementation

import (
    "context"
    "fmt"

    "github.com/mustafafuran/shift"
)

func NewCircuitBreaker() *shift.Shift {
    cb, err := shift.New(
        "a-name-for-the-breaker",

        // Trip from Close to Open state under 95.0% success ratio at minimum of
        // 20 invokations on configured duration(see WithCounter for durationed
        // stats)
        shift.WithOpener(StateClose, 95.0, 20),

        // Trip from Half-Open to Open state under 75.0% success ratio at
        // minimum of 10 invokations on configured duration(see WithCounter for
        // durationed stats)
        shift.WithOpener(StateHalfOpen, 75.0, 10),

        // Trip from Half-Open to Close state on 90.0% of success ratio at
        // minumum of 10 invokations on configured duration(see WithCounter for
        // durationed stats)
        shift.WithCloser(90.0, 10),
    )
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
    return cb
}

func DoSomethingWithFn(ctx context.Context, cb *shift.CircuitBreaker) string {
    var fn shift.Operate = func(ctx context.Context) (interface{}, error) {
        // do something in here
        return "foo", nil
    }
    res, err := cb.Run(ctx, fn)
    if err != nil {
        // maybe read from cache to set the res again?
    }

    // convert your res into your actual data
    data := res.(string)
    return data
}

func main() {
    cb := NewCircuitBreaker()
    data := DoSomethingWithFn(ctx, cb)
    fmt.Printf("data: %s\n", data)
}

Configure for max concurrent runnables

Shift allows adding restrictors like max concurrent runnables to prevent execution of the invokes on developer defined conditions. Restrictors do not effect the current state, but they can block the execution depending on their own internal state values. If a restrictor blocks an execution then it returns an error and On Failure Handlers get executed in order.

import (
    "github.com/mustafafuran/shift"
    "github.com/mustafafuran/shift/restrictor"
)

func NewCircuitBreaker() *shift.CircuitBreaker {
    restrictor, err := restrictor.NewConcurrentRunRestrictor("concurrent_runs", 100)
    if err != nil {
        return err
    }

    cb, err := shift.New(
        "twitter-cli",

        // Restrictors
        shift.WithRestrictors(restrictor),

        // Trippers
        shift.WithOpener(StateClose, 95.0, 20),
        shift.WithOpener(StateHalfOpen, 75.0, 10),
        shift.WithCloser(90.0, 10),

        // ... other options
    )
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
    return cb
}

Creating a reset timer based on errors

Any reset timer strategy can be implemented on top of shift.Timer interface. The default timer strategy does not intentionally implement any use case specific strategy like exponential backoff. Since the decision of reset time incrementation should be taken depending on error reasons, the best decider for each instance of CircuitBreaker would be the developers. In case, if it is good to just have a constant timeout duration, the shift/timer.ConstantTimer implementation should simply help to configure your reset timeout duration.


import (
    "github.com/mustafafuran/shift"
    "github.com/mustafafuran/shift/timer"
)

func NewCircuitBreaker() *shift.CircuitBreaker {
    timer, err := timer.NewConstantTimer(5 * time.Second)
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }

    cb, err := shift.New(
        "twitter-cli",
        // Reset Timer
        shift.WithResetTimer(timer),

        // Trippers
        shift.WithOpener(StateClose, 95.0, 20),
        shift.WithOpener(StateHalfOpen, 75.0, 10),
        shift.WithCloser(90.0, 10),

        // ... other options
    )
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
    return cb
}

Creating a counter based on your bucketing needs

Any counter strategy can be implemented on top of shift.Counter interface. The default counter strategy is using a bucketing mechanism to bucket time and add/drop metrics into the stats. The default Counter uses 1 second durationed 10 buckets. There are two possible options to modify the Counter based on your needs:

1) Create a new counter instance and pass as counter option

2) Create your own counter implementations and pass the instance as counter option


import (
    "github.com/mustafafuran/shift"
    "github.com/mustafafuran/shift/counter"
)

func NewCircuitBreaker() *shift.CircuitBreaker {
    // The TimeBucketCounter automatically drops a the oldest bucket after
    // filling the available last bucket and then shift left the buckets, so a
    // new space is freeing up for a new bucket

    // 60 buckets each holds the stats for 2 seconds
    capacity, duration := 60, 2000 * time.Millisecond
    counter, err := counter.TimeBucketCounter(capacity, duration)
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }

    cb, err := shift.New(
        "twitter-cli",
        // Counter
        shift.WithCounter(counter),

        // Trippers
        shift.WithOpener(StateClose, 95.0, 20),
        shift.WithOpener(StateHalfOpen, 75.0, 10),
        shift.WithCloser(90.0, 10),

        // ... other options
    )
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
    return cb
}

Events

Shift package allows adding multiple hooks on failure, success and state change circuit breaker events. Both success and failure events come with a context which holds state and stats;

  • State Change Event: Allows attaching handlers on the circuit breaker state changes
  • Failure Event: Allows attaching handlers on the circuit breaker execution results with an error
  • Success Event: Allows attaching handlers on the circuit breaker execution results without an error

Configure with On State Change Handlers

// a printer handler
var printer shift.OnStateChange = func(from, to shift.State, stats shift.Stats) {
    fmt.Printf("State changed from %s, to %s, %+v", from, to, stats)
}

// another handler
var another shift.OnStateChange = func(from, to shift.State, stats shift.Stats) {
    // do sth
}

cb, err := shift.New(
    "a-name",
    shift.WithStateChangeHandlers(printer, another),
    // ... other options
)

Configure with On Failure Handlers

// a printer handler
var printer shift.OnFailure = func(ctx context.Context, err error) {
    state := ctx.Value(CtxState).(State)
    stats := ctx.Value(CtxStats).(Stats)

    fmt.Printf("execution erred on state(%s) with %s and stats are %+v", state, err, stats)
}

// another handler
var another shift.OnFailure = func(ctx context.Context, err error) {
    // do sth: maybe increment an external metric when the execution err
}

// yetAnother handler
var yetAnother shift.OnFailure = func(ctx context.Context, err error) {
    // do sth
}

cb, err := shift.New(
    "a-name",
    // appends the failure handlers provided
    shift.WithFailureHandlers(StateClose, printer, another, yetAnother),
    shift.WithFailureHandlers(StateHalfOpen, printer, another),

    // Trippers
    shift.WithOpener(StateClose, 95.0, 20),
    shift.WithOpener(StateHalfOpen, 75.0, 10),
    shift.WithCloser(90.0, 10),

    // ... other options
)

Configure with On Success Handlers

// a printer handler
var printer shift.OnSuccess = func(ctx context.Context, data interface{}) {
    state := ctx.Value(CtxState).(State)
    stats := ctx.Value(CtxStats).(Stats)

    fmt.Printf("execution succeeded on %s and resulted with %+v and stats are %+v", state, data, stats)
}

// another handler
var another shift.OnSuccess = func(ctx context.Context, data interface{}) {
    // do sth: maybe increment an external metric when the execution succeeds
}

cb, err := shift.New(
    "a-name",

    // Appends the success handlers for a given state
    shift.WithSuccessHandlers(StateClose, printer, another),
    shift.WithSuccessHandlers(StateHalfOpen, printer),

    // Trippers
    shift.WithOpener(StateClose, 95.0, 20),
    shift.WithOpener(StateHalfOpen, 75.0, 10),
    shift.WithCloser(90.0, 10),

    // ... other options
)

Advanced configuration options

Please refer to GoDoc for more options and configurations.

Examples

Shift Examples Repository

Contributing

All contributors should follow [Contributing Guidelines](CONTRIBUTING.md) before creating pull requests.

New features

All features SHOULD be optional and SHOULD NOT change the API contracts. Please refer to API section of the [README.md](README.md) for more information.

Unit tests

Test coverage is very important for this kind of important piece of infrastructure softwares. Any change MUST cover all use cases with race condition checks.

To run unit tests locally, you can use Makefile short cuts:

make test_race # test against race conditions
make test # test and write the coverage results to `./coverage.out` file
make coverage # display the coverage in format
make all # run all three above in order

References

Credits

Mustafa Turan

License

Apache License 2.0

Copyright (c) 2020 Mustafa Turan

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.


*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the 🎚Shift README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.