Code Quality Rank: L3
Programming language: C
License: MIT License
Latest version: v2.0.6

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Latest stable version is v1.14 or later, not v2.

NOTE: The increase to v2 was an accident. There were no major changes or features.


A sqlite3 driver that conforms to the built-in database/sql interface.

Supported Golang version: See [.github/workflows/go.yaml](./.github/workflows/go.yaml).

This package follows the official Golang Release Policy.



This package can be installed with the go get command:

go get github.com/mattn/go-sqlite3

go-sqlite3 is cgo package. If you want to build your app using go-sqlite3, you need gcc. However, after you have built and installed go-sqlite3 with go install github.com/mattn/go-sqlite3 (which requires gcc), you can build your app without relying on gcc in future.

Important: because this is a CGO enabled package, you are required to set the environment variable CGO_ENABLED=1 and have a gcc compile present within your path.

API Reference

API documentation can be found here.

Examples can be found under the [examples](./_example) directory.

Connection String

When creating a new SQLite database or connection to an existing one, with the file name additional options can be given. This is also known as a DSN (Data Source Name) string.

Options are append after the filename of the SQLite database. The database filename and options are separated by an ? (Question Mark). Options should be URL-encoded (see url.QueryEscape).

This also applies when using an in-memory database instead of a file.

Options can be given using the following format: KEYWORD=VALUE and multiple options can be combined with the & ampersand.

This library supports DSN options of SQLite itself and provides additional options.

Boolean values can be one of:

  • 0 no false off
  • 1 yes true on
Name Key Value(s) Description
UA - Create _auth - Create User Authentication, for more information see User Authentication
UA - Username _auth_user string Username for User Authentication, for more information see User Authentication
UA - Password _auth_pass string Password for User Authentication, for more information see User Authentication
UA - Crypt _auth_crypt SHA1SSHA1SHA256SSHA256SHA384SSHA384SHA512SSHA512 Password encoder to use for User Authentication, for more information see User Authentication
UA - Salt _auth_salt string Salt to use if the configure password encoder requires a salt, for User Authentication, for more information see User Authentication
Auto Vacuum _auto_vacuum \ _vacuum 0 \
Busy Timeout _busy_timeout \ _timeout int
Case Sensitive LIKE _case_sensitive_like \ _cslike boolean
Defer Foreign Keys _defer_foreign_keys \ _defer_fk boolean
Foreign Keys _foreign_keys \ _fk boolean
Ignore CHECK Constraints _ignore_check_constraints boolean For more information see PRAGMA ignore_check_constraints
Immutable immutable boolean For more information see Immutable
Journal Mode _journal_mode \ _journal DELETETRUNCATEPERSISTMEMORYWALOFF
Locking Mode _locking_mode \ _locking NORMALEXCLUSIVE
Mode mode rorwrwcmemory Access Mode of the database. For more information see SQLite Open
Mutex Locking _mutex nofull Specify mutex mode.
Query Only _query_only boolean For more information see PRAGMA query_only
Recursive Triggers _recursive_triggers \ _rt boolean
Secure Delete _secure_delete boolean \ FAST
Shared-Cache Mode cache sharedprivate Set cache mode for more information see sqlite.org
Synchronous _synchronous \ _sync 0 \
Time Zone Location _loc auto Specify location of time format.
Transaction Lock _txlock immediatedeferredexclusive Specify locking behavior for transactions.
Writable Schema _writable_schema Boolean When this pragma is on, the SQLITE_MASTER tables in which database can be changed using ordinary UPDATE, INSERT, and DELETE statements. Warning: misuse of this pragma can easily result in a corrupt database file.
Cache Size _cache_size int Maximum cache size; default is 2000K (2M). See PRAGMA cache_size

DSN Examples



This package allows additional configuration of features available within SQLite3 to be enabled or disabled by golang build constraints also known as build tags.

Click here for more information about build tags / constraints.


If you wish to build this library with additional extensions / features, use the following command:

go build --tags "<FEATURE>"

For available features, see the extension list. When using multiple build tags, all the different tags should be space delimited.


go build --tags "icu json1 fts5 secure_delete"

Feature / Extension List

Extension Build Tag Description
Additional Statistics sqlite_stat4 This option adds additional logic to the ANALYZE command and to the query planner that can help SQLite to chose a better query plan under certain situations. The ANALYZE command is enhanced to collect histogram data from all columns of every index and store that data in the sqlite_stat4 table.The query planner will then use the histogram data to help it make better index choices. The downside of this compile-time option is that it violates the query planner stability guarantee making it more difficult to ensure consistent performance in mass-produced applications.SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4 is an enhancement of SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3. STAT3 only recorded histogram data for the left-most column of each index whereas the STAT4 enhancement records histogram data from all columns of each index.The SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3 compile-time option is a no-op and is ignored if the SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4 compile-time option is used
Allow URI Authority sqlite_allow_uri_authority URI filenames normally throws an error if the authority section is not either empty or "localhost".However, if SQLite is compiled with the SQLITE_ALLOW_URI_AUTHORITY compile-time option, then the URI is converted into a Uniform Naming Convention (UNC) filename and passed down to the underlying operating system that way
App Armor sqlite_app_armor When defined, this C-preprocessor macro activates extra code that attempts to detect misuse of the SQLite API, such as passing in NULL pointers to required parameters or using objects after they have been destroyed. App Armor is not available under Windows.
Disable Load Extensions sqlite_omit_load_extension Loading of external extensions is enabled by default.To disable extension loading add the build tag sqlite_omit_load_extension.
Foreign Keys sqlite_foreign_keys This macro determines whether enforcement of foreign key constraints is enabled or disabled by default for new database connections.Each database connection can always turn enforcement of foreign key constraints on and off and run-time using the foreign_keys pragma.Enforcement of foreign key constraints is normally off by default, but if this compile-time parameter is set to 1, enforcement of foreign key constraints will be on by default
Full Auto Vacuum sqlite_vacuum_full Set the default auto vacuum to full
Incremental Auto Vacuum sqlite_vacuum_incr Set the default auto vacuum to incremental
Full Text Search Engine sqlite_fts5 When this option is defined in the amalgamation, versions 5 of the full-text search engine (fts5) is added to the build automatically
International Components for Unicode sqlite_icu This option causes the International Components for Unicode or "ICU" extension to SQLite to be added to the build
Introspect PRAGMAS sqlite_introspect This option adds some extra PRAGMA statements. PRAGMA function_listPRAGMA module_listPRAGMA pragma_list
JSON SQL Functions sqlite_json When this option is defined in the amalgamation, the JSON SQL functions are added to the build automatically
Math Functions sqlite_math_functions This compile-time option enables built-in scalar math functions. For more information see Built-In Mathematical SQL Functions
OS Trace sqlite_os_trace This option enables OSTRACE() debug logging. This can be verbose and should not be used in production.
Pre Update Hook sqlite_preupdate_hook Registers a callback function that is invoked prior to each INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE operation on a database table.
Secure Delete sqlite_secure_delete This compile-time option changes the default setting of the secure_delete pragma.When this option is not used, secure_delete defaults to off. When this option is present, secure_delete defaults to on.The secure_delete setting causes deleted content to be overwritten with zeros. There is a small performance penalty since additional I/O must occur.On the other hand, secure_delete can prevent fragments of sensitive information from lingering in unused parts of the database file after it has been deleted. See the documentation on the secure_delete pragma for additional information
Secure Delete (FAST) sqlite_secure_delete_fast For more information see PRAGMA secure_delete
Tracing / Debug sqlite_trace Activate trace functions
User Authentication sqlite_userauth SQLite User Authentication see User Authentication for more information.
Virtual Tables sqlite_vtable SQLite Virtual Tables see SQLite Official VTABLE Documentation for more information, and a full example here


This package requires the CGO_ENABLED=1 environment variable if not set by default, and the presence of the gcc compiler.

If you need to add additional CFLAGS or LDFLAGS to the build command, and do not want to modify this package, then this can be achieved by using the CGO_CFLAGS and CGO_LDFLAGS environment variables.


This package can be compiled for android. Compile with:

go build --tags "android"

For more information see #201


To compile for ARM use the following environment:

env CC=arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc CXX=arm-linux-gnueabihf-g++ \
    go build -v 

Additional information:

Cross Compile

This library can be cross-compiled.

In some cases you are required to the CC environment variable with the cross compiler.

Cross Compiling from MAC OSX

The simplest way to cross compile from OSX is to use musl-cross.


  • Install musl-cross (brew install FiloSottile/musl-cross/musl-cross).
  • Run CC=x86_64-linux-musl-gcc CXX=x86_64-linux-musl-g++ GOARCH=amd64 GOOS=linux CGO_ENABLED=1 go build -ldflags "-linkmode external -extldflags -static".

Please refer to the project's README for further information.

Google Cloud Platform

Building on GCP is not possible because Google Cloud Platform does not allow gcc to be executed.

Please work only with compiled final binaries.


To compile this package on Linux, you must install the development tools for your linux distribution.

To compile under linux use the build tag linux.

go build --tags "linux"

If you wish to link directly to libsqlite3 then you can use the libsqlite3 build tag.

go build --tags "libsqlite3 linux"


When building in an alpine container run the following command before building:

apk add --update gcc musl-dev


sudo yum groupinstall "Development Tools" "Development Libraries"


sudo apt-get install build-essential


OSX should have all the tools present to compile this package. If not, install XCode to add all the developers tools.

Required dependency:

brew install sqlite3

For OSX, there is an additional package to install which is required if you wish to build the icu extension.

This additional package can be installed with homebrew:

brew upgrade icu4c

To compile for Mac OSX:

go build --tags "darwin"

If you wish to link directly to libsqlite3, use the libsqlite3 build tag:

go build --tags "libsqlite3 darwin"

Additional information:


To compile this package on Windows, you must have the gcc compiler installed.

1) Install a Windows gcc toolchain. 2) Add the bin folder to the Windows path, if the installer did not do this by default. 3) Open a terminal for the TDM-GCC toolchain, which can be found in the Windows Start menu. 4) Navigate to your project folder and run the go build ... command for this package.

For example the TDM-GCC Toolchain can be found here.


  • Compile error: can not be used when making a shared object; recompile with -fPIC

    When receiving a compile time error referencing recompile with -FPIC then you are probably using a hardend system.

    You can compile the library on a hardend system with the following command.

    go build -ldflags '-extldflags=-fno-PIC'

    More details see #120

  • Can't build go-sqlite3 on windows 64bit.

    Probably, you are using go 1.0, go1.0 has a problem when it comes to compiling/linking on windows 64bit. See: #27

  • go get github.com/mattn/go-sqlite3 throws compilation error.

    gcc throws: internal compiler error

    Remove the download repository from your disk and try re-install with:

    go install github.com/mattn/go-sqlite3

User Authentication

This package supports the SQLite User Authentication module.


To use the User authentication module, the package has to be compiled with the tag sqlite_userauth. See Features.


Create protected database

To create a database protected by user authentication, provide the following argument to the connection string _auth. This will enable user authentication within the database. This option however requires two additional arguments:

  • _auth_user
  • _auth_pass

When _auth is present in the connection string user authentication will be enabled and the provided user will be created as an admin user. After initial creation, the parameter _auth has no effect anymore and can be omitted from the connection string.

Example connection strings:

Create an user authentication database with user admin and password admin:


Create an user authentication database with user admin and password admin and use SHA1 for the password encoding:


Password Encoding

The passwords within the user authentication module of SQLite are encoded with the SQLite function sqlite_cryp. This function uses a ceasar-cypher which is quite insecure. This library provides several additional password encoders which can be configured through the connection string.

The password cypher can be configured with the key _auth_crypt. And if the configured password encoder also requires an salt this can be configured with _auth_salt.

Available Encoders
  • SHA1
  • SSHA1 (Salted SHA1)
  • SHA256
  • SSHA256 (salted SHA256)
  • SHA384
  • SSHA384 (salted SHA384)
  • SHA512
  • SSHA512 (salted SHA512)


Operations on the database regarding user management can only be preformed by an administrator user.


The user authentication supports two kinds of users:

  • administrators
  • regular users

User Management

User management can be done by directly using the *SQLiteConn or by SQL.


The following sql functions are available for user management:

Function Arguments Description
authenticate username string, password string Will authenticate an user, this is done by the connection; and should not be used manually.
auth_user_add username string, password string, admin int This function will add an user to the database.if the database is not protected by user authentication it will enable it. Argument admin is an integer identifying if the added user should be an administrator. Only Administrators can add administrators.
auth_user_change username string, password string, admin int Function to modify an user. Users can change their own password, but only an administrator can change the administrator flag.
authUserDelete username string Delete an user from the database. Can only be used by an administrator. The current logged in administrator cannot be deleted. This is to make sure their is always an administrator remaining.

These functions will return an integer:

  • 0 (SQLITE_OK)
  • 23 (SQLITE_AUTH) Failed to perform due to authentication or insufficient privileges
// Autheticate user
// Create Admin User
SELECT auth_user_add('admin2', 'admin2', 1);

// Change password for user
SELECT auth_user_change('user', 'userpassword', 0);

// Delete user
SELECT user_delete('user');

The following functions are available for User authentication from the *SQLiteConn:

Function Description
Authenticate(username, password string) error Authenticate user
AuthUserAdd(username, password string, admin bool) error Add user
AuthUserChange(username, password string, admin bool) error Modify user
AuthUserDelete(username string) error Delete user

Attached database

When using attached databases, SQLite will use the authentication from the main database for the attached database(s).


If you want your own extension to be listed here, or you want to add a reference to an extension; please submit an Issue for this.


Spatialite is available as an extension to SQLite, and can be used in combination with this repository. For an example, see shaxbee/go-spatialite.

extension-functions.c from SQLite3 Contrib

extension-functions.c is available as an extension to SQLite, and provides the following functions:

  • Math: acos, asin, atan, atn2, atan2, acosh, asinh, atanh, difference, degrees, radians, cos, sin, tan, cot, cosh, sinh, tanh, coth, exp, log, log10, power, sign, sqrt, square, ceil, floor, pi.
  • String: replicate, charindex, leftstr, rightstr, ltrim, rtrim, trim, replace, reverse, proper, padl, padr, padc, strfilter.
  • Aggregate: stdev, variance, mode, median, lower_quartile, upper_quartile

For an example, see dinedal/go-sqlite3-extension-functions.


  • Getting insert error while query is opened.

    You can pass some arguments into the connection string, for example, a URI. See: #39

  • Do you want to cross compile? mingw on Linux or Mac?

    See: #106 See also: http://www.limitlessfx.com/cross-compile-golang-app-for-windows-from-linux.html

  • Want to get time.Time with current locale

    Use _loc=auto in SQLite3 filename schema like file:foo.db?_loc=auto.

  • Can I use this in multiple routines concurrently?

    Yes for readonly. But not for writable. See #50, #51, #209, #274.

  • Why I'm getting no such table error?

    Why is it racy if I use a sql.Open("sqlite3", ":memory:") database?

    Each connection to ":memory:" opens a brand new in-memory sql database, so if the stdlib's sql engine happens to open another connection and you've only specified ":memory:", that connection will see a brand new database. A workaround is to use "file::memory:?cache=shared" (or "file:foobar?mode=memory&cache=shared"). Every connection to this string will point to the same in-memory database.

    Note that if the last database connection in the pool closes, the in-memory database is deleted. Make sure the max idle connection limit is > 0, and the connection lifetime is infinite.

    For more information see:

  • Reading from database with large amount of goroutines fails on OSX.

    OS X limits OS-wide to not have more than 1000 files open simultaneously by default.

    For more information, see #289

  • Trying to execute a . (dot) command throws an error.

    Error: Error: near ".": syntax error Dot command are part of SQLite3 CLI, not of this library.

    You need to implement the feature or call the sqlite3 cli.

    More information see #305.

  • Error: database is locked

    When you get a database is locked, please use the following options.

    Add to DSN: cache=shared


    db, err := sql.Open("sqlite3", "file:locked.sqlite?cache=shared")

    Next, please set the database connections of the SQL package to 1:


    For more information, see #209.


Code Contributors

This project exists thanks to all the people who [[contribute](CONTRIBUTING.md)].

Financial Contributors

Become a financial contributor and help us sustain our community. [Contribute here].


Support this project with your organization. Your logo will show up here with a link to your website. [Contribute]


MIT: http://mattn.mit-license.org/2018

sqlite3-binding.c, sqlite3-binding.h, sqlite3ext.h

The -binding suffix was added to avoid build failures under gccgo.

In this repository, those files are an amalgamation of code that was copied from SQLite3. The license of that code is the same as the license of SQLite3.


Yasuhiro Matsumoto (a.k.a mattn)

G.J.R. Timmer

*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the go-sqlite3 README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.